GENETIC ENGINEERING TOOLS

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To manipulate cells and DNA, scientists use tools that are borrowed from nature, including:

Restriction enzymes:
These naturally occurring enzymes are used as a defense by bacteria to cut up DNA from viruses. There are hundreds of specific restriction enzymes that researchers use like scissors to snip specific genes from DNA.

DNA ligase:
This enzyme is used in nature to repair broken DNA. It can also be used to paste new genes into DNA.

Plasmids:
These are circular units of DNA. They can be engineered to carry genes of interest.

Bacteriophages (also known as phages):
These are viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophages can be engineered to carry recombinant DNA.

 

 

 

 

 

Best Regards
Rebecca Pearson
Editorial Manager