Microplastics in global bivalve mollusks: A call for protocol standardization


Several mollusks are ideal subjects for the scientific study of the nervous system. The giant squid has sophisticated nervous systems and complex brains to study. California sea slugs, also known as California sea slugs, have a simple nervous system consisting of thousands of large, easily identifiable neurons and are therefore used in learning and memory studies. These neurons are responsible for various learning tasks. Some research on snail brains has even allowed scientists to better understand the human brain. Some cuttlefish and cuttlefish are incredibly smart. You can learn, solve problems and build mazes. Mollusks are mollusk invertebrates belonging to the phylum Mollusca that are partially or completely encased in a calcium carbonate shell expelled by a soft mantle covering the body. Mollusks are one of the most diverse groups in the animal kingdom, with about 100,000 species described. It is considered the second-largest phylum among invertebrates. Mollusks make up 23% of named marine life. Various mollusks live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Phyla are usually divided into eight or nine taxonomic classes, two of which are now extinct. Cephalopod mollusks such as cuttlefish, squid, and octopus are neurologically advanced among all invertebrates. The giant squid or giant squid is the best-known invertebrate species. Snails and gastropods such as snails are numerous mollusks, accounting for 80% of all classified species. Mussels are high in calories and rich in protein and nutrients. Perfect for those who are ready to shed extra pounds. Studies show that a high-protein diet effectively lowers the hunger hormone ghrelin. let me The study showed that a 15% increase in protein intake promoted satiety, reduced daily caloric intake by 441 calories, and significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass. The extremely high biodiversity of marine mollusks, along with their widespread utility as food sources and high nutritional value, is of great interest to the scientific community. Additionally, they are easily caught and are widely practiced for commercial breeding and farming. This article reviews the global availability of these organisms, pretreatment and handling procedures, and their antiviral, and anti-inflammatory, we discuss the health-enhancing potential with a focus on antimicrobial properties. Highlighted here are potential uses in the food and nutraceutical industry. Additionally, consuming mollusks as part of your daily diet can also help prevent many diseases due to their richness in essential nutrients and active secondary metabolites and their ability to boost immune responses. , the available literature suggests that normal cooking methods have no significant adverse effects on nutritional value and that certain biological activities are retained even after the action of digestive enzymes. Although it has been extensively researched for its health benefits, there is still room for further research along these lines to fully exploit this vast source of food and nutritional supplements. Many snails, mussels, and cephalopods are food sources for many cultures and play an important role in many countries' fisheries. The most famous and valuable example of this is pearl jewelry. Clams, oysters, snails, and squid often contribute too many coastal economies as food sources, but throughout history, the shells of various mollusks have also been used as currency. , most of them are useful. Harmful mollusks are snails and boat worms. Snails are harmful to gardens and crops. They not only eat leaves but also destroy plants by cutting roots and stems. Teredo, a shipworm, damages wooden ship parts. Many mollusks are excellent food sources for humans in many parts of the world. China leads the world in mollusk catches, reaching 80% share in 2010. France leads the industry in European catches. In some countries, the pearl industry is an important part of the economy, and large amounts of money are allocated to monitor the health of farmed mollusks.